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Classification of Diabetes Mellitus
Type 1 - insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)
Type 2 - noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)
MODY- Mature Onset Diabetes of the Youth
Type 3 - gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)
Type 4 - other types of diabetes linked to diseases of the pancreas, hormonal changes, side effects of drugs, or genetic defects
How do we study diabetes mellitus?
BB Rat Model
This is a line of spontaneously diabetic rat. These rats have autoimmune destruction of pancreatig islet beta cells, the same basic primary abnormality in human diabetes mellitus type I. They depend on insulin for survival and are prone to ketoacidosis.
GK Mouse Model
The GK (Goto-Kakizaki) rat is a spontaneously non-obese diabetic rat. This rat has the natural equipvalent of a human type II diabetes mellitus. As such, it is hyperinsulinemic, hyperglycemic and non-insulin-dependent.
db/db Mouse Model
Another diabetic rat mode, this one is obese.
Rats with Streptozotocin-induced diabetes
These are normal rats in which diabetes is induced with streptozotocin. it is one of the most commonly used models of diabetes mellitus. Streptozotocin is given during early puberty if one wants to obtain a good model of type I diabetes mellitus, which also has its onset peaking around early puberty in humans.
Clinical Studies follow animal studies.
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